**A Note: This summary of key debates between Orthodox, Revisionist, and Vietnam-Centrism understandings of the Vietnam War will without a doubt, be interpreted as contentious. My aim here is not to cast value judgment on the ethics of war, but to push further the responsibility towards understanding HISTORY and its actors.
For your summer reading pleasure and in the context of the ever rising importance of critically thinking through classification, here is my complete qualifying exam list on HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATION AND INFORMATION.
Examiner: Cathryn Carson
Second Field: History of Knowledge Systems
History of Classification and Information
1. STS & Memory Practices: Classification, Documentation, Catalogs, Libraries, Archives
2. History of Information, Information Age, Enlightenment Institutions
3. History of statistics: governance and discipline
4. Data Science: theory, explanation; experts
I. STS and Memory Practices: Classification, Documentation, Catalogs, Libraries, Archives
1. Bowker, Geoffrey C., and Susan Leigh Star. Sorting Things out: Classification and Its Consequences. Inside Technology. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1999.
2. Lampland, Martha, and Susan Leigh Star, eds. Standards and Their Stories: How Quantifying, Classifying, and Formalizing Practices Shape Everyday Life. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009.
3. Krajewski, Markus. Paper Machines: About Cards & Catalogs, 1548-1929. History and Foundations of Information Science. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2011.
4. Gitelman, Lisa. Paper Knowledge: Toward a Media History of Documents. Sign, Storage, Transmission. Durham ; London: Duke University Press, 2014.
5. Yeo, Richard. “Reading Encyclopedias: Science and the Organization of Knowledge in British Dictionaries of Arts and Sciences, 1730-1850.” Isis 82, no. 1 (1991): 24–49.
6. Olson, Hope A. “The Power to Name: Representation in Library Catalogs.” Signs 26, no. 3 (2001): 639–68.
7. Brown, Richard Harvey, and Beth Davis-Brown. “The Making of Memory: The Politics of Archives, Libraries and Museums in the Construction of National Consciousness.” History of the Human Sciences 11, no. 4 (November 1, 1998): 17–32.
8. Manoff, Marlene. “Theories of the Archive from Across the Disciplines.” Portal: Libraries and the Academy 4, no. 1 (2004): 9–25.
9. Jacob, Elin K. “Classification and Categorization: A Difference That Makes a Difference.” Library Trends 52, no. 3 (Winter 2004): 515–40.
10. Bowker, Geoffrey C. Memory Practices in the Sciences. Inside Technology. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2005.
11. Daston, Lorraine. “The Sciences of the Archive.” Osiris 27 (2012): 156–87.
12. Daston, Lorraine, and Peter Galison. “The Image of Objectivity.” Representations, no. 40 (October 1992): 81–128.
13. Marco Beretta, Bibliotheca Lavoisieriana: The Catalogue of the Library of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (Florence, 1995), 13– 58.
14. Grafton, Anthony. “Libraries and Lecture Halls.” In The Cambridge History of Science, edited by Katharine Park and Lorraine Daston, 238–50. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. http://universitypublishingonline.org/ref/id/histories/CBO9781139054010A016.
15. Grafton, Anthony Worlds Made by Words: Scholarship and Community in the Modern West. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2009.
a. chapters: A sketch map of a lost continent: the republic of letters & Codex in Crisis: the book dematerializes
16. Ludovico, Alessandro. Post-Digital Print – The Mutation Of Publishing Since 1894. Ram Publications, 2013.
Science & Technology Studies
17. Biagioli, Mario. The Science Studies Reader. New York: Routledge, 1999 (selections)
18. Latour, Bruno. We Have Never Been Modern. Translated by Catherine Porter. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1993.
19. Latour, Bruno. Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society. Milton Keynes ; Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1987.
20. Golinski, Jan. Making Natural Knowledge: Constructivism and the History of Science. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
21. Daston, Lorraine. “The Moral Economy of Science.” Osiris 10 (1995): 2–24.
II. Historical studies of Information, Enlightenment, Europe, ‘Information Ages’
In chronological order
16th-17th Western Europe
22. Blair, Ann M. Too Much to Know : Managing Scholarly Information Before the Modern Age. New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press, 2010.
23. Soll, Jacob. The Information Master: Jean-Baptiste Colbert’s Secret State Intelligence System. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2009.
18th Enlightenment- Post-1789 French Revolution “modern nation state”/19th Western Europe
24. Wellmon, Chad. Organizing Enlightenment: Information Overload and the Invention of the Modern Research University. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015.
25. Headrick, Daniel R. When Information Came of Age : Technologies of Knowledge in the Age of Reason and Revolution, 1700-1850. Cary, NC, USA: Oxford University Press, USA, 2000.
26. Darnton, Robert. “An Early Information Society: News and the Media in Eighteenth-Century Paris.” The American Historical Review 105, no. 1 (February 1, 2000): 1–35.
27. Burke, Peter. A Social History of Knowledge: From Gutenberg to Diderot. Cambridge, UK : Malden, MA: Polity ; Blackwell, 2000.
20th information ages, 1960’s-1980s, United States
28. Kline, Ronald R. The Cybernetics Moment, Or, Why We Call Our Age the Information Age. New Studies in American Intellectual and Cultural History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015.
29. Nunberg, Geoffrey. “Farewell to the Information Age.” The Future of the Book 125 (1996).
30. Day, Ronald E. Indexing It All: The Subject in the Age of Documentation, information, and Data. History and Foundations of Information Science. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2014.
31. Frickel, Scott, and Neil Gross. “A General Theory of Scientific/Intellectual Movements.” American Sociological Review 70, no. 2 (April 1, 2005): 204–32
III. History of statistics: governance and discipline
In chronological order
32. Gigerenzer, Gerd, ed. The Empire of Chance: How Probability Changed Science and Everyday Life. Ideas in Context. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire] ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
33. Daston, Lorraine. Classical Probability in the Enlightenment. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1988.
34. Hacking, Ian. The Taming of Chance. Ideas in Context. Cambridge [England]; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
19th-20th Science, Public & Social Life, the State
35. Porter, Theodore, M. The Rise of Statistical Thinking, 1820-1900. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1986.
36. Porter, Theodore, M. Trust in Numbers: The Pursuit of Objectivity in Science and Public Life. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995.
37. Agar, Jon. The Government Machine: A Revolutionary History of the Computer. History of Computing. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2003
38. Bouk, Daniel B. How Our Days Became Numbered: Risk and the Rise of the Statistical Individual. Chicago ; London: University of Chicago Press, 2015.
39. Desrosières, Alain. The Politics of Large Numbers: A History of Statistical Reasoning. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1998.
40. Scott, James C. Seeing like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. Yale Agrarian Studies. New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University Press, 1998.
41. Scott, James C., John Tehranian, and Jeremy Mathias. “The Production of Legal Identities Proper to States: The Case of the Permanent Family Surname.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 44, no. 1 (January 1, 2002): 4–44.
IV. Data Science: practice, algorithms, computers, role of experts
42. Boyd, Danah, and Kate Crawford. “CRITICAL QUESTIONS FOR BIG DATA: Provocations for a Cultural, Technological, and Scholarly Phenomenon.” Information, Communication & Society 15, no. 5 (June 2012): 662–79.
43. Dourish, Paul, and Genevieve Bell. Divining a Digital Future : Mess and Mythology in Ubiquitous Computing. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press, 2011.
44. Ensmenger, Nathan. The Computer Boys Take over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise. History of Computing. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2010.
45. Fox, Peter, and James Hendler. “The Science of Data Science.” Big Data 2, no. 2 (June 2014): 68–70.
46. Galison, Peter, and David Stump. “Computer Simulations and the Trading Zone.” In The Disunity of Science: Boundaries, Contexts, and Power, 118–57. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996.
47. Halpern, Orit. Beautiful Data: A History of Vision and Reason since 1945. Durham: Duke University Press Books, 2015.
48. Hey, Anthony J. G, Stewart Tansley, and Kristin Michele Tolle. The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery. Redmond, Wash.: Microsoft Research, 2009.
49. Christopher M. Kelty, Two bits: The cultural significance of free software (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008).
50. Kitchin, Rob. The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences. SAGE, 2014.
51. Mahoney, Michael S. “The Histories of Computing(s).” Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 30, no. 2 (June 2005): 119–35.
52. O’Neil, Cathy, and Rachel Schutt. “Doing Data Science.” In Doing Data Science. O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2013.
53. Tuomi, Ilkka. “Data Is More than Knowledge: Implications of the Reversed Knowledge Hierarchy for Knowledge Management and Organizational Memory.” Journal of Management Information Systems 16, no. 3 (December 1, 1999): 103–17.
Today I started writing the beast of the dissertation on Vietnamese libraries. “Builders and Users: Creating the Vietnamese Library 1887-1986”
The Vietnamese library was never quiet.
Readers flooded the reading room of the Central Library to escape the heat in the summers, and lovers huddled in corners during the unforgiving Hanoi winters. Frequent library patrons complained loudly to library staff and the public press about the lack of chairs for readers and unfair borrowing privileges between Vietnamese and Europeans. Everyday incidents between workers and readers, French and Vietnamese, coalesced into the ever so frequent epic library drama: a slap to the face, a lifetime revocation of library privileges, and a mysterious death reported as a suicide.
The sounds of the city — the torrential rains, construction sites, tranquil cafes, continuous traffic— play together as music notes to form a song of the city. Sống, means “to live.” In this film, I weave together vignettes and sounds of life in Hanoi.
Why I made this: Hanoi has changed me. And Hanoi is changing. I want to hold a piece of this time with me. Over the years,, my time in ‘Hanoi’ will become a memory, a lesson, and a concept filtered through my individual particular experiences. After the sights, smells and sounds of Hanoi fade away into sepia toned nostalgia…I hope this film can remind me of the feeling of the people and place of Hanoi.
Hanoi, the city
The Passion HiFi – “Distant”
Giraffage – “Slo”
Pete Rock – “Pete’s Jazz”
Zero Db – “Anything’s Possible”
Making of Hanoi Song / Hà Nội Sống
Film & Poem by Cindy A. Nguyen
What year did that happen?
Before liberation. / Trước khi giải phóng
When did you go to school?
When did you become a farmer?
When did you meet dad?
When did you want to leave?
And when was I born?
After liberation. / Sau khi giải phóng
What is liberation?
Liberation was a time.
It was a demarcation
of what came before
and what came after.
Liberation was a place.
where everyone was invited
and forever remained guests.
Awaiting an alternative future.
Liberation was a friend.
a neighbor, a brother
a believer, a dreamer
familiar, familial, filial.
Liberation was a sound
repeated, whispered echoes
to cleanse and empty
the evils of the past,
the errors of the past
the past, the past, the past.
Ngày xưa, ngày xưa, ngày xưa.
What do you do
at the beginning
of the end
of a story?
Hold fast the feeling
of sandpaper hands
of worn and tired rosaries
of stiff furniture wrapped in plastic.
Inhale the air
of tiger balm
of the damp, dark, disinfected hallway
of concoctions of ginseng, seahorse, and powdery dreams.
Hold your breath to the melody
of spilled pills
of hesitant doors opening and closing
of the rhythmic hum of snores, sniffles, and television whispers.
Replay the image
of the wrinkled forehead
of greys floating down paisley pajamas
of fluorescent flickers against translucent skin.
And just be
because they can no longer.
My mom speaks a particular linguistic formula of Vietnamese.
Take two generations of refugees,
Multiply it by memory, nostalgia, and fierce loyalty,
Subtract contemporary Vietnamese đổi mới economic changes and internet slang,
Add some Catholic guilt, the weekly Penny Saver free section, and just enough American English to avoid jury duty.
And as a result, we have the language of 1990’s Little Saigon, California:
We just moved here. = Tôi mới ‘mu’ (move) đây.
You have a duty to your family. = Con có ‘bổn phận’ (antiquated Sino-Vietnamese to mean obligation, citizen’s official liabilities) với gia đình.
The market has a sale. 5 pounds of apples for 1 buck. = “Chợ đang có ‘seo.’ Năm ‘paon’ táo cho một ‘bức.’
It’s a familial language of living history.
It’s a parental language to instill morality and gratitude.
It’s a mother’s language of survival.
And it was the language that I was raised on. Before I found my time structured by recess, arts and crafts, and English grammar, I absorbed the world around me. I helped my mom cut away the loose threads of her day’s garment work. I watched Vietnamese children’s karaoke and learned about sweeping the house, playing with fireworks, and cooking for your grandparents. Sitting cross-legged on the floor, I traced my mom’s handwriting of my name, Nguyễn Thị Kim Anh.
Utterances of sacrifice, duty, and reputation inserted themselves between meals and commercial breaks. These were the Vietnamese words that guided my everyday. But then I started to learn a new language at school. This language had other rules, speech patterns, and ideals. It was unlike the religious creeds my grandmother whispered, or the ethics of family forever first.
New authority figures who did not look like my parents told me,
“You can be whoever you want to be.”
“Everyone is different. Cindy has a flat nose.”
“You plagiarized. Your English essay is too good.”
And classmates who were supposed to be something called ‘peers’ told me,
“You are a Communist.”
And I would say, ”No I’m not. I came to America on a boat.”
And then everyone would laugh.
A different set of pronouns and names governed my existence.
At school I was the neutral pronoun “I” and the newly chosen name “Cindy Nguyen,” (“Cin-dy Win,” I would enunciate slowly each day during roll call. Yes, it’s okay, you don’t need to bother with my real name.)
At home I was a child (con) and the affectionate term of endearment “little one” (bé). But more often than not, you would find me in trouble—a disappointment to my entire family, kneeling in the corner and thinking about all of my sins. At that time my parents called me by my Vietnamese name, “Kim Anh”. Or on worse days, they called me, “someone else’s child” (con nhà ai).
I never questioned if I was ‘fluent’ in English or Vietnamese. Until that stale suburban afternoon during my third grade parent-teacher conference, when my mom screeched “My children talk English good! She not ESL. She do good job in school.”
I remember it very clearly as a screech because all the little hairs along the back of my neck stood on end. I replayed in my head not what my mother said, but how she said it. I wanted her to stop speaking, because it resembled the scratching of distorted static—the slow undoing of velcro shoes (something I yearned for) during Catholic confession (something I feared). She sounded foreign, bizarre, comedic even. That day I learned that the English language could be something called ‘broken.’ And for the first time I was embarrassed of my mom.
And day by day, the Vietnamese language that I was raised on turned into a secret language. Take my mother’s version of Vietnamese, then
Multiply by 12 years of American public school peer pressure,
Subtract the ability to read and write Vietnamese,
Add some creative misunderstandings, unspoken teenage resentment, and dreams of the American sitcom family.
And as a result, we have the language of my Vietn-America. This language was contained within the perimeter of
The five apartments we lived in during my childhood,
The fifty person weekly reunions with extended family,
The five o’clock afternoon routine of sleepy Sunday mass.
My version of Vietnamese mechanically activates after I enter these spaces. Automatically, my head tilts downwards, my shoulders hunch, and the weight of loss, sacrifice, and misguided hope force my arms to cross over each other.
I lose the ability to look at someone in the eye.
I lose a vocabulary of expression, of empowerment, of individuality.
I lose the pronoun “I.”
School was good. = “Gút”
I’m sorry mom, I made you sad. = “Xin lỗi mẹ, con làm mẹ buồn.”
Thank you Mom and Dad, for taking care of us kids. = “Cảm ơn bố mẹ đã “trông sóc”… (Apparently this is not actually a word, as confirmed by the Vietnamese dictionary, but a creative combination of “trông nom” + “chăm sóc.”)
Your bittermelon soup was delicious! (I love you.) = “Canh khổ qua mẹ nấu ngon lắm!”
It’s a familial language of food (and love).
It’s a child’s language to ask for forgiveness.
It’s a girl’s language of broken translations and dreams.
Hanoi, February 2017
See my other essays in Portfolio